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Notes and thoughts about J.R.R. Tolkien, the Tolkien Index, and related topics.

Pauline Baynes’ ‘There and Back Again’: Some Notes

Tolkien (misc.)Posted by Morgan Thomsen Sun, July 21, 2013 23:41:41
Recently I managed to acquire a copy of a poster-map I’ve been eager to take a closer look at: Pauline Baynes’ There and Back Again: Bilbos Journey through Eriador and Rhovanion (1971[1]). Long-time collectors and scholars will of course be familiar with this poster, but as a younger (well, mid-30s) enthusiast, it wasn’t readily available and I had my own reason to study the map.

Before finding a copy of the map, I namely posed a question at a well-known online Tolkien forum, asking if anyone knew if Baynes consulted with Tolkien for the creation of There and Back Again. My question derived from the knowledge that Baynes’ earlier poster, Map of Middle-earth (1970), was produced in collaboration with Tolkien, “who sent her a marked photocopy of the general map, as well as additional names to include and advice on a few points of topography and nomenclature”.[2] Could it therefore be that also the 1971 poster-map has some unique features that would be able to enrich our understanding of Middle-earth?

However, no one had a reply (or perhaps no one found the question interesting!) at the forum, and since none of my Tolkien-related reference works had anything to say on the subject, I decided to directly ask the foremost experts,[3] Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull. They kindly replied (quoted with their permission):

“Tolkien seems not to have given Baynes any additions for the Hobbit map, or instructions except to concentrate on landscape rather than figures. He asked to approve the art before it went to press, and did so when Pauline and her husband visited Tolkien in Poole.”[4]

While being grateful for an authoritative and informative answer to my question, it was of course also somewhat disappointing that the small “research project” undertaken for this blog post mainly yielded negative knowledge: it would likely be fruitless to look for additional pieces of information concerning the legendarium using the 1971 poster-map as a basis. Nevertheless, though, the illuminated map is a beautiful piece of art, created by “Tolkien’s illustrator of choice for his own works”[5] – reasons enough for me to take delight in it!

Final Note 1: I find it interesting that Tolkien recommended Baynes to “concentrate on landscape rather than figures”. The statement sheds additional light on one of my older posts here (‘Tolkien and the Illustrations of Robert J. Lee’), where I argued (though likely not being the first to point out this aspect of Tolkien’s artistic preferences) that Tolkien’s own illustrations contains “very few actual portraits, and when people occasionally appear in a landscape, they are often very small and in the background” – perhaps one of the reasons why Tolkien disliked Lee’s pictures.

Final Note 2: At least two erros, concerning the spelling of place names, appear to occur on the 1971 map:

[for] River Gladuin [read] River Glanduin
[for] Dimril Dale [read] Dimrill Dale

Footnotes & References

[1] ‘In Memoriam: Pauline Diana Baynes’, in Tolkien Studies: Volume 6, p.vii.
[2] Hammond, Wayne G. & Scull, Christina, The Lord of the Rings: A Readers Companion (HarperCollins 2008), p. lxiv.
[3] Hammond and Scull are currently working on a biography about Pauline Baynes – a work in progress which they occasionally write about at their weblog: Too Many Books and Never Enough.
[4] Private correspondence (8 June 2013).
[5] Scull, Christina & Hammond, Wayne G., The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: Readers Guide (HarperCollins 2006), p. 76.

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Father Francis Morgan, Tolkien, and Spain

Tolkien (misc.)Posted by Morgan Thomsen Mon, April 22, 2013 23:42:46

Acknowledgements: I’m grateful to David Bratman and Daniel Helen for reading the draft and providing me with comments and corrections. Update (28 May 2013): I would like to thank Beregond, Anders Stenström for pointing out an error and for giving a linguistic insight (the text has been amended accordingly).

1. Introduction

In March 2013, the Spanish Tolkien scholar José Manuel Ferrández Bru published La Conexión Española de J.R.R. Tolkien: El “Tío Curro” (Astorga, León: Editorial CSED). Ferrández Bru’s book, which is both the first biography about Father Francis Xavier Morgan Osborne (henceforth Father Francis) and the first book-length study of connections between Father Francis, Spain, and J.R.R. Tolkien, could be placed in at least two categories of texts dealing with Tolkien.

Firstly, it joins a handful of books, having appeared in the last decade, which focus on a particular aspect of Tolkien’s life – I’m thinking of such works as John Garth’s Tolkien and the Great War (2003), Andrew H. Morton’s Tolkien’s Gedling (2008) and Tolkien’s Bag End (2009), and Phil Mathison’s Tolkien in East Yorkshire 1917–1918 (2012).

Secondly, it is one of quite few original publications in languages other than English that include formerly unknown biographical information (albeit being bits and pieces) about Tolkien. Of such, there are for example Arne Zettersten’s Tolkien - min vän Ronald och hans världar (2007; eventually appearing in an English edition in 2011), an interview in Polish with Tolkien’s friend Przemyslaw Mroczkowski (Tygodnik Powszechny, No. 14, 1994), and an interview with Tolkien’s former au-pair Arndís Þorbjarnardóttir, published in the Icelandic newspaper Morgunblaðið (28 February 1999).

My personal interest in reading Ferrández Bru’s biography lies in gaining a deeper understanding of the connection between Father Francis and Tolkien and his family (and the chosen title of his book reveals that Ferrández Bru is aware that this will be the case for a majority his readers). I will therefore proceed below by mainly noting such details which appear to be hitherto unknown concerning this relationship.

2. Anecdotes and reminiscences

Ferrández Bru has to date published two articles in English about his particular field of research in Tolkien scholarship: ‘J.R.R. Tolkien and the Spanish Civil War’ in Mallorn 51 (2011), and ‘“Wingless fluttering”: Some Personal Connections in Tolkien’s Formative Years’ in Tolkien Studies, vol. VIII (2011). To these should also be added the articles about Father Francis that Ferrández Bru has published in English on his website.

In Tolkien Studies, Ferrández Bru noted that he “obtained invaluable data in interviews and letters exchanged with Priscilla Tolkien” (p. 59). While Priscilla Tolkien’s contribution remained implicit in that particular text, the Mallorn article provided two brief quotations by Priscilla, both concerned with reminiscences of Tolkien’s views on the Spanish Civil War. These two quotations also appear in La Conexión Española de J.R.R. Tolkien (pp. 231-2), and the book includes several additional quotations and references to his correspondence with Priscilla: such are reminiscences by Priscilla about her father’s great interest in the Spanish language owing to his close connection to Father Francis (p. 159), a brief description of Father Francis and his relationship to her (pp. 193-4), and how the death of Father Francis affected her father (p. 198). Moreover, La Conexión Española de J.R.R. Tolkien contains the following anecdotes recorded by Priscilla Tolkien:

A ceremonial ”good afternoon”: In the early 1920s in Leeds, J.R.R. Tolkien stepped out of a tram in the company of Father Francis. The latter had a powerful presence and made a deep impression on a girl standing next to the tram, who kept staring at the Father intensely. Taking notice of the girl, Francis Morgan “removed his large-brimmed hat and turning towards the girl said ‘good afternoon’ with great ceremony” (p. 194).[1] The surprised girl became terrified and started to run away from Father Francis. Afterwards, J.R.R. Tolkien was fond of telling this amusing story to his children.

Tears for wheat flakes (p. 198): In the early 1930s at Tolkien’s home at 20 Northmoor Road in Oxford, the elderly Father Francis (who died on 11 June 1935, 78 years old), was sitting by the table while Edith Tolkien kept asking what kind of cereals he might be wanting for breakfast. At last he chose a brand called Force, but noticed that the young Priscilla had started crying – it was her favourite cereals and she regarded them as belonging to her. Father Francis, who guessed why she was crying, handed her the package of cereals and apologized, thereby winning her confidence and stopping her tears.

The smelly Camembert (pp. 195, 197): Travelling on a train, Edith Tolkien and Father Francis were bringing a gift to Ronald, a Camembert cheese (of which he was especially fond). Having reached its maturity, the cheese omitted such a strong smell that fellow travellers started leaving the wagon, which eventually became empty except for Edith and Father Francis. According to Priscilla, this memory has been kept throughout the years within the Tolkien family. While I have found no other reference to this incident, it bears likeness to the anecdote about the greasy Banbury cake: “Father Francis sometimes came to visit from Birmingham, once chaperoning Edith. She remembered the train stopping at Banbury and Father Francis insisting on buying Banbury cakes – the local delicacy – which were very greasy. The grease got everywhere and caused considerable confusion.” (The Tolkien Family Album, p. 35).

The “flip-flap” clock: The heritage of Father Francis’s brother Augusto Morgan contained a certain clock being a family heirloom. After struggling with administrative hindrances, Father Francis brought the clock to England from Spain, and upon his own death, he bequeathed it to Tolkien, who “kept it in his study throughout his whole life and who more than once managed to get it repaired even though its machinery was antique” (p. 208).[2] In a footnote, Ferrández Bru comments that the Tolkien family called the clock by the name “the flip-flap”,[3] and that it passed on to John Tolkien, Ronald’s eldest son. The clock appears to have been lost after John’s death.

3. Possible influences

3.1 Father Francis

The Saviour in the Gnomish Lexicon: Ferrández Bru points to an entry appearing in Tolkien’s Gnomish Lexicon (dating from 1917 and published in its entirety in Parma Eldalamberon, vol. 11): “Faidron or Faithron = Francis”. By observing the usage in the Gnomish Lexicon of proper names being denoted by capital letters and the equality sign denoting names in other languages, in addition to the occurrence of names of other figures in the life of Tolkien in the corresponding Qenya Lexicon (Parma Eldalamberon, vol. 12), Ferrández Bru concludes that “Francis” here very likely refers to Father Francis (in his Foreword, Ferrández Bru thanks John Garth for suggesting this lead).[4] He then looks at the Elvish cognates, finding English glosses such as freedom, set free, liberation, liberty, liberator, and Saviour. Ferrández Bru admits that it is impossible to tell if Tolkien actually intended these concepts to be characteristic of Father Francis, but suggests that it’s “very revealing that [Tolkien], in his private world and creation, composes the name of his tutor through terms connected with freedom and liberation” (p. 182).[5]

In the guise of Thingol (pp. 242-3): It is well-known that Tolkien’s relationship to Edith served as an inspiration for the story of Beren and Lúthien. Ferrández Bru suggests that the character of Thingol, who opposed the love of Beren and Lúthien, might be owing something to Francis Morgan, who likewise opposed the love between Ronald and Edith.

The ceremonial Troll (pp. 194-5): In connection with the anecdote of Father Francis’s ceremonial “good-bye” mentioned above, Ferrández Bru suggests that this event might have influenced Tolkien when composing the poem ‘Perry-the-Winkle’. In the poem, the Lonely Troll tries to find a friend and encounters Mrs Bunce, a hobbit. The well-meaning troll greets her with a smile and a “Good-morning, ma’m! Good day to you!”, but the hobbit “yelled a frightful yell” and “ran home like mad”.

3.2 Spanish influence

The young Tolkien had access to Father Francis’s library containing many Spanish books (the library is unfortunately no longer existent),[6] possibly including works written by his relatives (see below), and that he surely used to recount anecdotes about Spain for Tolkien. Ferrández Bru says that one can therefore find “an interesting line of speculation about an unknown influence in Tolkien’s works” (p. 159),[7] and suggests a number of such possible influences.

Romanticism (pp. 211ff): Among Father Francis’s older relatives were found quite a few prominent authors, such as Juan Nicolás Böhl de Faber, Frasquita Larrea, and Cecilia Böhl de Faber. Ferrández Bru analyses romantic and traditional themes (“progress contra nature”) in the writings of these authors, and notes a similarity in the writings of J.R.R. Tolkien, perhaps suggesting that Tolkien was aware of their works or possibly having been influenced by their ideas through Francis Morgan.

Landscape and places in Spain: While admitting the inherent danger of guesswork concerning relationships between locations appearing in the legendarium and the real world (p. 241),[8] Ferrández Bru proposes that the transportation of wine barrels on the river between Lake-town and the Elf-king’s cave in The Hobbit is reminiscent of the transportation of goods on the river Guadalete from Jerez and El Puerto de Santa María (from where hailed the family of Father Francis). He further notes that Gondor and Minas Tirith might owe something to the white facades of certain Andalucian houses, “los pueblos blancos”, and discusses an etymological similarity between the river Anduin, the Great River, and the rivers Guadalete and Gualdalquivir, the latter deriving from an Arabic name meaning “great river” and both referred to as “Río Grande” in everyday speech (pp. 242ff).

4. Some critical points

When writing a biography about or closely related to Tolkien, one can nowadays hardly escape from consulting The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide (2006). I was therefore somewhat surprised to find that La Conexión Española de J.R.R. Tolkien did not include Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond’s magisterial reference work in its list of references.[9] A passage where Ferrández Bru’s exposition would have benefited from such a reading concerns the funeral of Father Francis. Based on a recollection by Priscilla Tolkien, Scull and Hammond note that while Tolkien himself could not attend the funeral, his eldest son John possibly went there to represent his father (Chronology, p. 788). Ferrández Bru appears not to include this piece of information. Another example is the dating of the poem ‘Perry-the-Winkle’: Ferrández Bru places the composition of the poem to between 1920 and 1930 (citing Humphrey Carpenter’s biography as his authority), but a quick glance in the Companion and Guide reveals a more exact year of composition in addition to providing more information about its background (see Reader’s Guide, p. 997).[10]

In some cases Ferrández Bru has instead consulted Daniel Grotta, both through correspondence and the Spanish translation of his J.R.R. Tolkien: Architect of Middle-earth, for biographical information about Tolkien. Grotta’s biography about Tolkien is regarded as problematic by many Tolkien scholars,[11] and questions about credibility therefore arise when Ferrández Bru, attributing Grotta, writes that Father Francis soon after the death of Mabel Tolkien took the Tolkien brothers on a railroad trip to Wales for fifteen days (p. 164). From what I can find, no mention of this event has occurred elsewhere.[12]

These critical points notwithstanding, I consider La Conexión Española de J.R.R. Tolkien to be a valuable contribution to Tolkien scholarship. Ferrández Bru writes lucidly and cogently, and for anyone seeking to find out more about Father Francis’s ancestors there is a wealth of information (which I have not covered here). Furthermore, the neat division of the book into clearly separated parts makes it useful as a reference work (although it regrettably lacks an index). Like Zettersten’s book, I’m eager to see an English edition of La Conexión Española de J.R.R. Tolkien in a near future, hopefully revised and expanded on a few points through consulting The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide. A not-so-distant English edition would additionally ensure that the quoted excerpts of Priscilla Tolkien’s reminiscences (which I surmise are written in English) will be available in their original form.

Works consulted

Carpenter, Humphrey (1977). J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Grotta, Daniel (1992; 1st ed. 1976). J.R.R. Tolkien: Architect of Middle-earth. Philadelphia: Running Press.

Scull, Christina and Hammond, Wayne G. (2006). The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: Chronology & Reader’s Guide (2 vols.). London: HarperCollins.

Tolkien, John and Tolkien, Priscilla (1992). The Tolkien Family Album. London: HarperCollins.


The photograph of the “Force Enamel Advertising Sign” is copyrighted by (reproduced in accordance with the terms and limitations of use).

[1] “… se quitó su sombero de ala ancha y girándose hacia la niña le dijo buenas tardes con gran ceremonia.”

[2] “… lo conservó en su estudio durante toda su vida y en más de una ocasión fue capaz de repararlo a pesar de la antigüedad de su maquinaria.”

[3] The onomatopoeic name “flip-flap” is used in the Spanish text; I’m uncertain if Ferrández Bru used a Spanish expression to translate an English variant.

[4] Suggesting a different (or supplementary) interpretation, Beregond, Anders Stenström has commented that while “the presence of Francis in the Gnomish Lexicon obviously reflects the presence of Francis Morgan in Tolkien’s life, its translation is probably simply etymological: the basis of the name is the same as in Frank and French, but this also came to refer to liberty, being a free man, as in frank and franchise” (comments field to this article, accessed 28 May 2013).

[5] “… es muy revelador que en su mundo privado, en su creación personal, componga el nombre de su tutor usando raíces relacionadas con la libertad y la liberación.”

[6] Ferrández Bru writes (p. 163) that he found an online post, at a Tolkien forum, providing some information about books from Father Francis’s library. He doesn’t give a link to the post, but it can be accessed at (as of 19 April 2013).

[7] “… una interesante línea de especulación sobre una desconocida influencia en la obra de Tolkien”.

[8] A tendency discussed by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull in their blog article ‘Tolkien, Leek, and the Moorlands’ (4 September 2012;

[9] In his article in Tolkien Studies, though, Ferrández Bru does mention The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide as well as the J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia edited by Michael D.C. Drout, which he regards as “useful resources which provide new sources of data beyond the information available in the Carpenter biography” (p. 59, note 1). However, neither of these works is cited as a source in the article or in La Conexión Española de J.R.R. Tolkien.

[10] The precursor of ‘Perry-the-Winkle’, a poem called ‘The Bumpus’, belongs to a series of unpublished poems called Tales and Songs of Bimble Bay. These poems are “centred on an imaginary English coastal town and harbour” and date from ca. 1928. Thus, the “real-world” background of ‘Perry-the-Winkle’ might actually corroborate Ferrández Bru’s theory that Father Francis’s “ceremonial ‘good afternoon’” served as an inspiration for the “ceremonial Troll”.

[11] See Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, ‘Truth or Consequences: A Cautionary Tale of Tolkien Studies’ (, and the comments field to Jason Fisher’s blog post “Shadows of the past” (

[12] It is possible that Grotta’s notes about Tolkien’s trip to Wales with Father Francis (which can be found in J.R.R. Tolkien: Architect, p. 27) derive from his interviews with some of “Tolkien’s friends and associates” (p. 8). It should also be made clear that Ferrández Bru does state that the version of the trip to Wales included in his book is given “according to Daniel Grotta” (“[s]egún Daniel Grotta”) and that it is not known if the trip “actually took place” (“si realmente se produjo”; p. 164). However, since Humphrey Carpenter only says that “[l]ater in childhood [Tolkien] went on a railway journey to Wales” (J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, p. 26), providing no further details (and neither are such found in Scull and Hammond’s entry for Wales, in their Reader’s Guide, p. 1085), Grotta’s version lacks supporting evidence – a critical point which I wish Ferrández Bru could have emphasized even more strongly.

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Vinyar Tengwar 50 Index & Some Notes

IndexingPosted by Morgan Thomsen Sun, March 17, 2013 01:56:27

After a long hiatus I'm pleased to announce the completion of an index of names for the newly published Vinyar Tengwar, issue 50 (containing J.R.R. Tolkien's “Túrin Wrapper”, edited by Carl F. Hostetter).

While the manuscript published in this issue contains quite few proper names, Hostetter investigates various Elvish (Sindarin) glosses in relation to a plethora of concepts appearing in other works by Tolkien, which mainly has contributed to yield a rather extensive index. As usual, an editorial mention of a name is represented on Tolkien Index as a page number within square brackets.

Vinyar Tengwar 50 can be accessed as part of the Collected Vinyar Tengwar Vol. 5, available through


On 2 October 2012 I finished an index of names for Tolkien's The Qenya Alphabet, published in Parma Eldalamberon Vol. 20 (edited by Arden R. Smith). Parma Eldalamberon 20 can be ordered from the website of the journal.


News related to Tolkien Index can now also be read at a newly created Twitter account.


Finally I would like to acknowledge the kind help and support of Daniel Helen, who assists in maintaining Tolkien Index.

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Tolkien and the Illustrations of Robert J. Lee

Tolkien (misc.)Posted by Morgan Thomsen Tue, July 31, 2012 21:09:52

[Updates (10 September 2012): Douglas A. Anderson has noted some additional information and corrections about Robert J. Lee's illustrations over at his blog "Tolkien and Fantasy". (23 October 2013): Some additional images and notes can be found at]

In January 1967, Tolkien’s secretary Joy Hill sent him a copy of The Children’s Treasury of Literature (edited by Bryna and Louis Untermeyer, first published in 1966 by Paul Hamlyn), which includes the chapter “An Unexpected Party” from The Hobbit. The chapter as published in The Children’s Treasury of Literature (appearing on pp. 463–86, with an editors’ introduction on p. 462) features 18 illustrations by Robert J. Lee (1921–1994): 4 in full colour, and 14 in monochrome or duotone.

On 5 January 1967, Tolkien wrote to Hill, describing his reception of the anthology: “I think a great many of the illustrations are very good, including some of the modern ones. Illustrations to The Hobbit extract seem to me worst of all, vulgar, stupid, and entirely out of keeping with the text which Robert J. Lee does not seem to have read with any care” (Reader’s Guide, pp. 421–2).

I bought a copy of the anthology about a week ago, and below I will identify all of Lee’s illustrations for the chapter from The Hobbit. I have also provided a scan of three illustrations, and I will finally offer a brief analysis.

1. Duotone illustration in blue and black (p. 462), depicting Bilbo, Gandalf, three dwarves, Smaug, and two goblins.

2. Full-colour illustration (p. 463), depicting Bilbo outside his house.

3. Monochrome illustration (p. 464), depicting Belladona Took.

4. Monochrome illustration (p. 465), depicting Gandalf.

5. Full-colour illustration (pp. 466–7), depicting Bilbo and Gandalf outside Bag End.

6. Monochrome illustration (pp. 468–9), depicting Bilbo and ?Dwalin.

7. Full-colour illustration (pp. 470–1), depicting four dwarves eating and drinking at Bilbo’s table.

8. Duotone illustration in blue and black (p. 472), depicting an angry Bilbo rushing towards his door.

9. Duotone illustration in blue and black (p. 473), depicting Bifur, Bofur, Bombur, and Thorin.

10. Full-colour illustration (p. 474), depicting two dwarves balancing columns of plates, with a worried Bilbo in the background.

11. Duotone illustration in yellow and black (p. 477), depicting four dwarves playing music on their instruments. From left to right: a dwarf (Dwalin or Balin) with a viol, Bombur with a drum, a dwarf (Dori, Nori, or Ori) with a flute, and Thorin with his harp.

12. Monochrome illustration (p. 479), depicting Bullroarer Took on his horse, knocking goblins with a wooden club.

13. Monochrome illustration (p. 480), depicting Gandalf reading Thror's Map, in the light of a lamp, with four dwarves in the background.

14. Monochrome illustration (p. 481), depicting the head of Smaug protruding behind a hill.

15. Monochrome illustration (p. 482), depicting a dwarf having found gold and jewels.

16. Monochrome illustration (p. 483), depicting a flying Smaug.

17. Monochrome illustration (p. 484), depicting Smaug wreaking havoc on Dale.

18. Duotone illustration in blue and black (p. 486), depicting three dwarves sleeping on pieces of Bilbo’s furniture.

As can be seen in the illustrations collected in J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator and The Art of The Hobbit, Tolkien preferred to draw landscapes (especially in his pictures for The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings); there are very few actual portraits, and when people occasionally appear in a landscape, they are often very small and in the background. Meanwhile Robert Lee focuses on the characters in his illustrations for “An Unexpected Party”; at best the sense of an environment is peripheral and serves only to highlight the actions of the characters.

Tolkien’s dislike of the work of the Disney Studio is well documented, and maybe the comical style of Lee’s illustrations was off-putting to Tolkien. In comparison, the illustrations of Tolkien’s favourite artist, Pauline Baynes, showed an elegant style, often inspired by “medieval manuscript illuminations” (Reader's Guide, p. 76).

Another source of disapprovement was perhaps Lee’s use of colour. In describing a hobbit to his American publisher, Tolkien wrote ”Clothing: green velvet breeches; red or yellow waistcoat; brown or green jacket; gold (or brass) buttons; a dark green hood and cloak” (The Art of The Hobbit, p. 140). These earth tones are naturally in stark contrast to Lee’s 1960s psychedelic colours: saturated shades of pink, violet, orange and blue (e.g., see illustration nr. 10).

These differences may point to reasons why Tolkien found Lee’s illustrations to be “vulgar” and “stupid”. However, I would personally say that the remark about the illustrations being “out of keeping with the text” to be too harsh. Lee’s close reading can perhaps most clearly bee seen in illustration nr. 5. Bilbo’s feet have “natural leathery soles and thick warm brown hair”, and he smokes “an enormous long wooden pipe that reached nearly down to his woolly toes”, blowing “out a beautiful grey ring of smoke”. Gandalf is portrayed as a “little old man with a tall pointed blue hat, a long grey cloak” and having a “long white beard” and “immense black boots”. The picture also shows Bag End’s “perfectly round door like a porthole, painted green, with a shiny yellow brass knob in the exact middle”. A detail is Bilbo’s hat; as far as I can see, there is no mention of Bilbo having a hat in the first chapter of The Hobbit. But in the beginning of the second chapter, “Roast Mutton”, it is written: “To the end of his days Bilbo could never remember how he found himself outside, without a hat, [emphasis mine] walking-stick or say money”. It is possible that Lee drew inspiration from this remark! Furthermore, in illustration nr. 11, Lee has taken care to include only those instruments mentioned by Tolkien.

Tolkien had strong opinions about art, and was often sceptical towards illustrations inspired by his works, especially when these deviated from descriptions in his textual passages (Reader's Guide, pp. 418–22). Robert J. Lee, however, was more-or-less faithful to the original text and it appears that Tolkien’s dislike for Lee’s work stems from a profound divergence in artistic taste and style between the two individuals.


I am grateful to Daniel Helen for various comments and suggestions.


Hammond, Wayne G. & Scull, Christina (2011). The Art of The Hobbit. London: HarperCollins.

Hammond, Wayne G. & Scull, Christina (2004; first published 1995). J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator. London: HarperCollins.

Peng, Leif. “Storybook Illustration”, at (dated 4 September 2006, accessed 31 July 2012).

Scull, Christina & Hammond, Wayne G. (2006). The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: Readers Guide. London: HarperCollins.

Tolkien, J.R.R. (1999; first published 1937). The Hobbit. London: HarperCollins.

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Vinyar Tengwar 39 Index

IndexingPosted by Morgan Thomsen Thu, May 17, 2012 13:45:46
I just finished compiling an index of names for Vinyar Tengwar 39 on Tolkien Index.

The writings by Tolkien published in this issue were “From Quendi and Eldar, Appendix D” and “Ósanwe-kenta: ‘Enquiry into the Communication of Thought’”. Both are highly interesting texts, containing many passages not only of interest to linguists. If you are not an owner already, I recommend you to order the The Collected Vinyar Tengwar from the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship!

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